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Because of their anti-inflammatory effect, cherries can reduce symptoms of arthritis and gout. Gout is a type of arthritis that is caused by a buildup of uric acid which leads to extreme swelling, inflammation, and pain in your joints.

Amylases are enzymes that break down complex carbs into sugars, for example, glucose and maltose. These enzymes are more active in ripe mangoes, making them sweeter than unripe ones.

The majority of the fat in avocado is oleic acid which is a monounsaturated fatty acid that can also be found in olive oil and is believed to be responsible for some of its health benefits.

4. Cherry

It is also a great source of vitamin A, and it encourages hair growth. Additionally, it helps protect your skin from the sun.

Mango improves digestive health

Cherries reduce symptoms of arthritis and gout

Avocados can help fight against depression

Three selection methods (single seed descent (SSD), mass selection and selective intermating) were applied simultaneously to a highly heterogeneous and broadly based population of greengram. Progeny developing after two cycles of selection were evaluated for yield and seven other economic characters. The relative efficacy of each selection method was judged on the basis of the number of high yielding progeny, mean yield of top 10% progeny, and mean of the highest yielding progeny. Selection after two cycles of selective intermating was found to be the best method for generating productive progeny although mass selection favouring smaller seeds was an equally efficient method. Both of these were found superior to SSD selection.

The average call rates for the single seed sampling strategy across all accessions harvested at 7, 15, 25, and 30 DAPI were 87.6%, 98.3%, 98.5%, and 99.3% respectively (Fig. 3a). The average call rate for leaf tissue was estimated to be 97% (Fig. 3a). A Tukey-HSD multiple comparisons test showed no significant differences between genotypic call rates generated at 15, 25, 30 DAPI, and leaf tissue. Call rates for samples collected at 7 DAPI were significantly lower than the other developmental stages (Fig. 3a).

99%) and the high genotypic concordance results between single seed and leaf-based MAS strategies (

Evaluation of single seed-based sampling at different developmental stages

For the leaf-based protocol, leaf tissue was sampled from F6 rice lines derived from a single panicle of an F5 plant. The resulting F6 plants from each line were grown under field conditions and sampled 60 days after transplanting. Twelve F6 plants from each line were grown in the field and identified using a barcoded identification label. Each line’s barcode was scanned and synchronized with the “Coordinate” application. A waxed-paper envelope with the same barcode was also scanned and matched with the field barcode. Leaf tissue was collected from the first plant of each line and stored in waxed-paper envelopes. This process was repeated until all lines were sampled. The envelopes were taken to the lab and dried for 2 days at 50 °C using a convection oven or a lyophilizer. Envelopes containing dried leaf tissue were grouped in 94-sample batches to have uniform leaf-punches excised from the sample. To do this, dried tissue stored in the waxed-paper envelopes was taken out and four 4-mm diameter discs from each leaf sample were punched directly into a 96-deep-well plate using the AK-EP100 bench-top leaf puncher (Applied King, http://www.appliedking.com/lab-automation/) in the pre-defined order determined by the ‘Coordinate’ app. This last step was repeated for all samples until the batch was completed, leaving the last two wells empty as negative/positive controls. The plate was then covered with a silicon cap mat or sticky paper and shipped immediately to Intertek-AgriTech for DNA extraction, marker assay and scoring.

The effect of seed developmental stage on the DNA quantity and quality was also compared between whole seed and leaf-based sampling strategies using a set of 14 accessions (Additional file 1: Table S1) replicated 5 times. For each accession a single panicle per plant was tagged at the day of its exertion and seeds were sampled at 7, 15, 25, and 30 days after panicle initiation (DAPI). These time points represent well described developmental phases in rice, namely: milky, dough, yellow-ripe, and maturity stages. At each time point, five seeds from one panicle per accession were sampled to make up 70 samples on a single deep-well plate. In addition, 5 leaf samples were also collected from each accession to be compared with the whole seed-based sampling results. Plants were grown in pots at IRRI’s Zeigler Experimental Station (ZES) screen house facilities in Los Baños, Philippines.

Plant breeding programs producing inbred lines have two concurrent goals: (i) identifying parents for subsequent breeding cycles, and (ii) identifying new inbreds for varietal release [18]. Reducing the time to complete both activities is an effective way to increase the rate of genetic gain and efficiently deliver new varieties to farmer’s fields [30]. Integrated breeding approaches such as the combination of marker-assisted selection (MAS) and rapid line fixation (either through single seed decent (SSD; [6, 28] or double haploid creation (DH; [22] can be used to both increase selection efficiency and shorten the breeding cycle [35, 36]. In marker-assisted selection (MAS), molecular markers associated with favorable large-effect alleles are used as indirect selection criteria to improve breeding populations by deterministically increasing the frequency of specific high-value haplotypes in the breeding program [2, 29]. Rapid generation advance using SSD is an easy and cost-effective way to quickly attain line homozygosity in rice and effectively reduce the duration of variety development. In particular for self-pollinated crops, SSD methods are often cheaper than doubled haploid technologies since the later not only required high level of technical expertise but sophisticate tissue culture laboratories and facilities to generate large numbers of double haploid lines. The use of simple agronomic interventions can encourage early flowering [14, 35] reducing even further the time required in SSD methodologies to generate fixed lines. It’s common in many public plant breeding programs to impose marker assisted selection in the F2 generation in order to reduce the number of selection candidates handled by the program, however, closer to fixation (e.g. F6 or S6) the frequency of desired homozygous genotypes for two unlinked target loci more than triples (increasing from 0.0625 in the F2 to 0.235 in the F6 population). Thus, to identify 50 lines with the desired homozygous genotypes at two loci, on average 800 F2 individuals would be required compared to only 213 in the F6 population. As a consequence, the cost of genotyping is substantially reduced when MAS is conducted closer to line fixation. This is especially relevant as adding additional MAS targets increases population sizes exponentially. Further, leaf sampling F2 individuals is required as each plant is genetically unique and F2 derived seeds maternal and embryonic tissue DNA profiles are still segregating. However, imposing MAS at the F6 generation permits the use of whole seed sampling for genotyping with minimal risk of failure because each seed on the resulting panicle is nearly genetically identical.