There is a lot of interest in growing industrial hemp for CBD production, especially since hemp was legalized in the 2018 Farm Bill. Take a look at some of my previous articles regarding the potential risks and rewards in the CBD market as well as agronomic considerations for successful industrial hemp production. Hemp Production – Keeping … There are different factors affecting the quality and quantity of CBD oil such as quality of the plant, method of extraction, and extraction skills.
How to Harvest and Dry Hemp for CBD Production
El inglés es el idioma de control de esta página. En la medida en que haya algún conflicto entre la traducción al inglés y la traducción, el inglés prevalece.
Al hacer clic en el enlace de traducción se activa un servicio de traducción gratuito para convertir la página al español. Al igual que con cualquier traducción por Internet, la conversión no es sensible al contexto y puede que no traduzca el texto en su significado original. NC State Extension no garantiza la exactitud del texto traducido. Por favor, tenga en cuenta que algunas aplicaciones y/o servicios pueden no funcionar como se espera cuando se traducen.
English is the controlling language of this page. To the extent there is any conflict between the English text and the translation, English controls.
Clicking on the translation link activates a free translation service to convert the page to Spanish. As with any Internet translation, the conversion is not context-sensitive and may not translate the text to its original meaning. NC State Extension does not guarantee the accuracy of the translated text. Please note that some applications and/or services may not function as expected when translated.
Estoy de Acuerdo / I agree
There is a lot of interest in growing industrial hemp for CBD production, especially since hemp was legalized in the 2018 Farm Bill. Take a look at some of my previous articles regarding the potential risks and rewards in the CBD market as well as agronomic considerations for successful industrial hemp production.
Fresh cut hemp drying. Whole plants hung in this fashion during the drying phase may have humidity trapped in the center due to the ‘closed umbrella’ shape that an entire plant takes on. Breaking off and hanging individual branches is recommended. Photo by George Place.
CBD oil extraction process. Photo by George Place
Harvesting hemp is a critical stage for CBD production. The presence of molds and mildews will lower the value of hemp floral biomass so a timely harvest is essential. There are visual clues on the hemp bud that growers should monitor. When trichomes on the hemp bud shift from white to milky white it may be time to harvest.
Weekly testing of CBD content can inform the grower of when harvest should be initiated. This is in addition to the required THC test with the North Carolina Department of Agriculture. While some of the tests for CBD, cannabinoids, terpenes, pesticide residue, mold, and heavy metals can cost as much as $300 the return on investment can be significant. For example, if 1000 lbs of biomass will be harvested on one acre the difference between harvesting when the crop is at 6% CBD versus when the crop is at 7%CBD is equivalent to 10 pounds of CBD oil. Current prices for CBD oil are $5 per gram. With 454 grams per pound, a 1% discrepancy in CBD content on one acre can be a $20,000 crop value difference. Growers need to test frequently to make the right decision regarding harvest timing.
Weather will also be a key factor in determining when to pull the harvest trigger. Harvest time for hemp coincides with the hurricane season. Growers will have an easier time drying and curing their hemp floral biomass if they can bring it in before the arrival of a storm. This is the time when adequate labor is crucial. The vast majority of hemp growers for the CBD market are relying on labor to cut the stalk (the machete is the current tool of choice) and load the biomass. This takes a lot of time and physical exertion. I have heard reports of growers that had an excellent crop of hemp floral biomass but suffered massive losses because they could not harvest it in time (their two-person harvest team was not adequate). The importance of measuring the labor requirement is a big reason why we recommend that first-year hemp growers for the CBD market start with 1 acre or less. Growers need to keep track of the amount of man and woman hours that it takes to bring in the harvest. Maintaining sharp tools during the harvest process will also save time and effort.
Drying and Curing Hemp
Hemp biomass made from chipping the entire hemp plant. This biomass is low quality and will receive a reduced price. Photo by George Place
Once hemp is harvested growers should immediately move the floral biomass to the drying facility. This could be a simple structure like a barn. The facility should be under roof, out of direct sunlight, and well ventilated. Growers need to set up several fans and have them blowing continuously. Significant ventilation is crucial! Ideal temperatures for drying and curing are 60 to 70 degrees F at 60% humidity. Some processors say that hemp growers should not dry their floral biomass at the same temperatures as flu-cured tobacco. Those temps are too high and dry the hemp too quickly. A slow drying with high airflow will cure the hemp, produce a higher quality end product (better cannabinoid and terpene spectrum), and fetch a higher price.
It is difficult to estimate the square footage of drying space needed per plant. Using a flu-cured tobacco with 800 square feet a grower was able to dry 1 acre worth of plants (approximately 1350 plants) in 3 days. Another grower was able to dry approximately 1.5 acres worth of hemp (plant number not stated) in a 2500 square foot barn.
Hanging entire plants upside down on wires in the drying barn is a common practice. Unfortunately, as those plants dry the branches droop down in the formation of a closing umbrella. That closing umbrella shape results in less airflow to the center of that entire hemp plant. Thus more mold and mildew will grow in that center portion. We advise growers to break off the individual branches from the hemp plant and hang branches on the drying wire, not whole plants. This step is more labor intensive but will help minimize mold and mildew.
Dry and shucked (stem removed) hemp flower biomass. Photo by George Place
Dry hemp biomass still on the stem, referred to as unshucked. Photo by George Place
How Much CBD Oil From One Plant? [Update For 2022]
Although it is difficult to give an exact figure, it is possible to estimate how much CBD oil per plant is generated. Growing hemp is a difficult task, and it is only logical to optimize the profits whenever feasible.
The cannabis industry is evolving and developing all the time. Every few years, hemp growers upgrade and replace their equipment, resulting in higher CBD output. This not only boosts company revenues, but it also gives customers better CBD gummies, CBD cream, CBD capsules, CBD oil tinctures, and other CBD products.
We will go deeper into hemp farming and how farmers are cultivating cannabis in an environmentally friendly manner, and we will introduce one of the best brands of CBD oil based on our research.
What Methods Are Used to Extract CBD Oil?
CBD oil is obtained by extracting it from hemp plants (Cannabis Sativa). It is important to remember that CBD oil is not the same as cannabis or hemp seed oil. Cannabis oil is derived from the Cannabis Indica plant, which is a type of marijuana. Hemp seed oil is derived from the seeds of the hemp plant. Cannabidiol is obtained from hemp flowers, leaves, and stems in comparison.
Hemp, not marijuana, is used to make the majority of medical cannabis products. In terms of THC content, these two are vastly different. To put it another way, marijuana has a far higher total THC level than medicinal marijuana, which is why it is still illegal in many nations. Hemp, on the other hand, contains substantially more of the desired cannabinoid CBD. CBD levels in some strains can be as high as 20%.
Full spectrum CBD oil is the most basic form. Hemp processors can distill the material further to produce CBD isolate or broad spectrum CBD oil. Each of these oils has its own set of constituents.
How Much CBD Oil Can One Plant Produce?
One hemp plant yields roughly one pound of CBD tincture. Hemp plants have the advantage of being able to be packed tightly together. So, with a whole acre of plants, you may expect to obtain roughly 1,500 pounds of CBD hemp flowers. All of this will yield about 200 pounds of oil. Despite the fact that the price of medical hemp oil fluctuates, a hemp harvest of this magnitude might earn you more than $20,000.
Needless to say, the more the plant is processed, the less substance it produces. It is possible to get 140 pounds of isolate and 160 pounds of broad spectrum oil from said amount of hemp. Of course, because the prices of these oils are higher, you will not lose money. However, you may need to spend more money and time to set up the distillation process.
Hemp flowers are only produced by female plants. You must be extremely cautious when purchasing hemp seeds so you do not buy male plants. While the oil may be made from any part of the plant, flowers have the highest CBD percentage.
The Most Important Elements Which Influence the Overall CBD Quantity
Although these figures appear to be impressive in theory, most businesses overrun (or undershoot) their quotas. Companies that are efficient and have modern technology and agricultural knowledge can create higher yields. The following are some of the elements that influence the overall CBD amount:
Method of extraction
CO2 extraction is the best but most expensive approach. Other methods may be less expensive, but they may leave a harmful residue. In the following paragraphs we will discuss this issue in detail.
The quality of the plant
The quicker you can make the plant, the better. If you want to know how much CBD oil can one plant produce and optimize it, you should consider the traits and genetic potentials of a given strain..
Efficiency as a whole
It is critical for technicians to be knowledgeable about the equipment, extraction methods.
As you could expect, your technicians will become accustomed to the equipment and cultivation, resulting in higher total yields and oil outputs. Using private label and white label services is a popular practice in the cannabis industry.
Considering all the factors above, and users’ comments online, the Cureganics CBD oil is one of the best CBD oils available on the market.
How Is CBD Extracted from Cannabis?
The Cannabis sativa family is divided into marijuana and cannabis. Although both contain CBD, cannabis (how convenient) contains very little (less than 0.2%) THC compared to marijuana and can be grown legally by farmers in many parts of the world. This is why CBD is extracted from raw materials and ground cannabis.
Depending on the purification steps after the first extraction, different types of extracts are produced from full to broad spectrum CBD to CBD isolate. However, each process starts and is determined by choosing a method for this initial extraction, so let’s look at the most common options.
CBD Extraction with Alcohol
The alcohol used for extraction is usually ethanol or isopropyl alcohol, both of which are solvents often used in food production. The herbal substance is saturated with it, then the solution is filtered with the extract components from the mixture and the alcohol is distilled out.
The so-called crude extract is then further distilled to remove, for example, chlorophyll (the green color of plants) or unwanted cannabinoids such as THC while enriching cannabinoids such as CBD.
Alcohol extraction is the most widely used method for CBD extraction worldwide. The solvent can be recycled and used for later extraction, saving money and resources. It also does not require overly specialized equipment.
CBD Extraction with CO2
If you have read anything about CBD extraction, you have probably come across CO2, the cleanest solvent possible. CO2 is usually a gas, but when pressure and temperature are properly regulated, it can be the so-called ‘supercritical fluid’ used as the extraction medium.
The extraction process is essentially similar to alcohol, except that a more complex setting is required to handle the high pressures caused by the use of liquid CO2. On the positive side, more set points allow more unwanted components to be removed from the beginning and the solvent (CO2) to evaporate easily at the end of the process without leaving any trace in the product.
CO2 mining has become commonplace in recent years, but the high operating costs and specialized equipment required may be a problem.
CBD Extraction with Vegetable Oil
Extracting cannabinoids with vegetable oils is probably the oldest method in history and is therefore worth mentioning here. The oil is “injected” with the hemp raw material, which slowly releases its oil-soluble components, just like brewing a cup of tea.
The main drawback is that the oil is not easily removed, which means that the concentration of cannabinoids in the product remains relatively low and it is not possible to selectively remove unwanted components such as THC. Vegetable oils are also relatively expensive and ineffective compared to CO2 or alcohol.
CBD Extraction with Butane
Like ethanol and CO2, butane can be used as an effective solvent for cannabinoids when passing through dry plant materials. The initial gravity of the oscillations is high, which causes all the effects of this solvent to be eliminated by using a small amount of heat or a small vacuum. However, it is highly explosive and flammable, making it difficult to work with. In addition, it is not a preferred solvent for use in food products.
The resulting extract still has a high content of trepens and normal THC levels and is usually not further refined.
CBD Extraction with Pressure
This method results in a product that is very similar to butane extraction but completely without the use of solvents. Instead, high pressure and heat are used to obtain the resin extract directly from plant materials. The more pressure it uses, the less heat must be used, leaving valuable terpenes intact. This method has become increasingly popular with smaller manufacturers looking for full-spectrum extracts, while still retaining the natural content of THC, terpenes and other plant compounds.
Based on our research Cureganics is one of the few CBD companies that uses a strict extraction procedure to ensure that only the highest-quality CBD products are made.
All Cureganics products are tested for purity using high-performance liquid chromatography to ensure the highest quality and efficacy. Cureganics products also have a Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment-approved Free Sale Certificate.
As you can see, there are different ways to extract CBD from hemp. The choice of method depends on various factors such as the intended use of the extracted product and economic and environmental considerations as well as the available equipment.